Category of IP right
Type of limitation
Limitations on exclusivity:
Acts carried out in private for non-industrial or non-commercial purposes;
Preparation of a medicine for a single patient, according to a medical prescription and under the supervision of an authorized professional;
Acts carried out solely for experimental purposes, including acts anticipating future commercial exploitation, carried out during the year prior to expiry of the patent / utility model / industrial design;
Acts carried out for teaching, scientific or academic research purposes;
Import or entry of small quantities of goods not of a commercial nature contained in the personal effects of passengers or sent in small packages.
Law Regulating Rights and Obligations Relating to Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs (1999), Articles 39, 85 and 98
(!!!) Patents/Utility models/Designs - Prior user rights:
Owners of patents / utility models / industrial designs may not prevent acts carried out by third parties who, in good faith, on the date of filing of the application / priority, were already manufacturing the product or using the process that is the subject matter of the invention or had made serious preparations to manufacture, use or work it.
Law Regulating Rights and Obligations Relating to Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs (1999), Articles 40, 85 and 98
Topographies of Semiconductor Products
Text quotation, when reproduction is non-substantial, copy of parts of a work for scientific, literary or artistic critique and investigation.
Law on Copyright (1937)
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