Category of IP right

Type of limitation


Relevant regulation

Patents/Utility models/Designs

PATENTS ONLY Limitations on exclusivity

Use which is not commercial;

use in experiments relating to the invention as such;

examinations or experiments or measures arising from practical demands which are needed for an application to obtain a marketing authorisation for a medicinal product and which relate to the invention concerning that medicinal product (21.4.2006/295);

preparation in a pharmacy of a medicine prescribed by a physician in individual cases.

Patents Act of 1967, Chapter 1, section 3

Patents/Utility models

Industrial Designs

Exception from the right to design

Private use for non-commercial purposes;

use of the design for experimental purposes;

acts of reproduction for the purposes of making citations or of teaching.

Registered Designs Act of 1971, Chapter 1, Section 5b

Topographies of Semiconductor Products

Trade Marks

Limitations on exclusivity. Anyone may use the following:

his surname, address or trade name in his business as a trade symbol for his goods. The exclusive rights in a trade symbol shall not apply to any part of it that is intended mainly to render the goods or their packaging more suitable for their purpose, or serves some other purpose different from that of a trade symbol.

Trademarks Act of 1964, Chapter 1, Sections 3, 5


Private use

Anyone may make single copies for his private use of a work that has been made public.

Copyright Act of 1961, Chapter 2 Section 12


The following types of use do not infringe copyright:

Use of works for educational activities and scientific research

Reproductions in hospitals, senior citizens' homes, prisons and other similar institutions

Reproduction in archives, libraries and museums

Making works available to persons with disabilities

Literary or artistic works of compilation used in education

Public display of copies of a work

Public performance of a published work


Article on current topic

News report in a broadcast or film

Public proceedings

Copyright Act of 1961, Chapter 2 Sections 14-16, 16 a, 17, 18, 20-23, 25, 25d